El Niño Prospects

The outlook for El Niño has become particularly difficult because of conflicting signals. Columbia University’s International Research Institute for Climate and Society reports that computer models are predicting a strong El Niño, in particular because of the above average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the eastern tropical Pacific, or what has become known as a… Continue reading El Niño Prospects

Southern Africa Climate, Outlook and Dam Levels Update May 2017

The northern part of the region has moved into its dry season with a fairly sharp cutoff in our Gauteng province but with Free State dam levels looking good after above average summer rains. In the water short southern parts rains have not set in sufficiently to impact significantly on dam levels. Columbia University’s International… Continue reading Southern Africa Climate, Outlook and Dam Levels Update May 2017


Sand appears such a freely available universal resource that it is easy to forget that availability is not a given and mining it can give rise to problems. In South Africa we are well aware of the exploitation of ilmenite sands and the effect on the environment. These sands are the most important source of… Continue reading Sand